China is the second-largest country in the world by land area after Russia and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area of United States. China's total area is generally stated as being approximately 9,600,000 km2. Specific area figures range from 9,572,900 km2 according to the Encyclopedia Britannica,and 9,640,011 km2 including Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, which are controlled by China.

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the total area of the United States, at 9,522,055 km2, is slightly smaller than that of China. Meanwhile, the CIA World Fact book states that China's total area was greater than that of the United States until the coastal waters of the Great Lakes was added to the United States' total area in 1996.

China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring 22,117 km from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin. China borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14. China extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Burma in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan in South Asia; Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; a small section of Russian Altai and Mongolia in Inner Asia; and the Russian Far East and North Korea in Northeast Asia.

China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam and the Philippines. The PRC and the Republic of China (Taiwan) make mutual claims over each other's territory and the frontier between areas under their respective control is closest near the islands of Kinmen and Matsu, off the Fujian coast, but otherwise run through the Taiwan Strait. The PRC and ROC assert identical claims over the entirety of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea, and the southern-most extent of these claims reach ZengmuAnsha (James Shoal), which would form a maritime frontier with Malaysia.

Beijing, Changchun, Changsha, Chengde, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dalian, Datong, Dunhuang, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Hangzhou, Harbin, Huangshan, Hohhot, Kunming, Lhasa, Luoyang, Nanchang, Nanjing, Qingdao, Sanya, Shanghai, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Suzhou, Tianjin, Urumqi, Xi an, Xining, Xiamen, Yinchuan are the major cities of china.

18° and 54° N, and longitudes73° and 135° E. China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west, major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas, and high plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world's highest point, Mt. Everest (8848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. The country's lowest point, and the world's fourth-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression.

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist. The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography.

China is one of 17 mega diverse countries lying in two of the world's major eco -zones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya. In the Palearctic zone, mammals such as the horse, camel, tapir, and jerboa can be found. Among the species found in the Indomalaya region are the Leopard Cat, bamboo rat, treeshrew, and various monkey and ape species. Some overlap exists between the two regions due to natural dispersal and migration; deer, antelope, bears, wolves, pigs, and numerous rodent species can all be found in China's diverse climatic and geological environments.